Personal identity is a philosophical field that deals with questions about human nature. These questions ask who we were when all beings began and what would happen to us at the moment of our death. It questions the self, where the self is defined as some immaterial consciousness. The question of who we are is the most basic problem when dealing with the philosophical field of personal identity. This question is often superposed with the question of whether who we are today is the same self that was yesterday and who we will be the day after tomorrow. It thus consists of discussing features that define an individual as a human being or in colloquial terms “what makes people tick’. Personal identity is vital in the paper since it helps in examining whether Mr. Lee is the same person before and after the deterioration of his dementia.

There are several theories of personal identity that could shed light on whether Mr. Lee’s families should honor his two decisions. One of these theories is the memory theory. John Locke suggested that there exist a relationship between a person and his former self since both of his mental stages are stretched on the same spectrum of consciousness. He further proposed that the relationship between his two time-delimited selves lies on that fact that the latter self-has the memories of earlier self and therefore if the memory is intact they can be said to be the same person. In Mr. Lee’s situation, the memory theory would instruct us first to consider whether the physical characteristics of Mr. Lee in his current state are the same as they were before being discharged from the hospital. The second consideration would be to see whether his memory of his former self is still intact. Since Mr. Lee suffered dementia, his memory is, therefore, unreliable. Thus, the theory would have us disregarding any insight that Mr. Lee has over his former self. The change in decision to go back to a nursing home should, therefore, be honored since the family is dealing with a new Mr. Lee.

The second theory is the body theory. This theory states that as long as a person’s ‘self’ is still constrained in the same body as it was before then, he or she can be said to be the same person. Arguably, any decision individual should be consistent with his former self’s wish. In the case of Mr. Lee, the theory would instruct us to honor his first wish to stay at home since the decision of his current self is affected by the memory loss of his former self’s wish. Therefore, the family members who stood by the decision to honor Mr. Lee’s first wish were right. Both theories have pros and cons. The memory theory has the proof relevance to Mr. Lee’s situation since he has dementia. However, its con is that there is a difference in real memory and apparent memory. The body theory’s pro is that Mr. Lee is residing in the same body he was in after he was diagnosed with dementia. However, the body theory fails to consider the difference in the psychological state of Mr. Lee.

Personal identity is a vital philosophical problem as was seen in the case of Mr. Lee it can help us solve moral dilemmas. All personal identity theories seek to solve the question of the ‘essence’ of humans. They, however, differ in paying precedence to one region of an individual. The memory theory respects an individual’s memory while the body theory respects their body in establishing whether that person is the same as they were a moment ago. In my perspective, taking the memory theory approach would be the most appropriate way in handling Mr. Lee moral dilemma. Mainly because it is relevant to his memory situation.


Blake’s “The Tyger” and Bishop’s “The Fish” focuses on animal behavior and human understanding of it. Blake gets a feeling of awe and wonders when he thinks about the tiger as an animal by presenting it as the “Tyger”. The poet brings it out as more of the work of blacksmith and not God. He compares the compassion that one feels towards the outward appearance of a tiger to the aggressiveness of the tiger, and therefore, wonders how the tiger can have captivating eyes but is such a dangerous animal, and he ends up questioning the existence of God. The readers get to understand Blake’s understanding and thinking of the animals through his endless questions. He is in a dilemma and asks bugging issues such as who created the tiger and the existence of that particular person. He even compares the evil of a tiger to the innocence of the lamb and scrutinizes the possibility of the two different animals to have been made by the same creator.

Elizabeth Bishop uses her poem “The Fish,” to show the relationship between human and nature as they struggle to coexist. The friendly nature of the human beings towards animals is seen when she leaves the fish to go free, which happens only after she develops a relationship with the fish. Being a commercial fisher, the readers of the story do not expect her to let the fish free as she already sees the commercial use of various parts of the fish such as the white flesh, gills, bones, and jaws. In her wild imagination, she sees the fish for commercial benefit and nothing else. Elizabeth tries to see far beyond eyes of the fish, and this brings out the existence of the human beings to that of the fish. It also brings out the human dominance over the animals for their selfish gains, the killing of the fish, therefore, leading to the destruction of ecology. By setting the fish, free Elizabeth saves a life.

In Martel’s life of Pi, the audience encounters Mr. Patel’s zookeeping abilities and compare it to his parental skills through his son Pi. Mr. Patel uses the goat and tiger experience to teach his son on how dangerous a tiger can become so that he can prepare Pi for whatever danger he may face ahead. Even so, Pi does not use this knowledge in his encounter at the lifeboat. Instead, he uses his knowledge of animal sense, and their predictable behavior o helps him overcome the encounter he meets at the see.

Concisely, the text focuses on animal behavior and human understanding of it. Mr. Patel sees a different view from that of Pi. According to him, he feels that by enclosing a goat and a hungry tiger in the same cage, Pi will learn from the attack that the tiger gives the goat. Ultimately, he becomes more careful in his everyday endeavors. Conversely, Pi uses the knowledge he gains from reading and studying about animals daily to enable him to survive a tiger attack at sea.

Mr. Patel’s view about the tiger is similar to that of Blake’s since they both see it as a dangerous animal despite the fact that the beauty in its eyes amazes Blake. He compares its innocence to that of a lamb. Therefore, Elizabeth, Blake and Mr. Patel have an encounter with the animals to understand their behavior.


acting

Some actors are born to act. They recite their lines and live out their character as if it is the natural thing to do. They are “prodigies,” or so most people call them. On the other hand, there are also people who like to work on their technique by diving into literature.

Regardless if you are a natural or use hard work as your drive, you can never be too prepared. Your abilities can always be nurtured beyond their current state – and the best way to do that is if you learn from experts. Here are the best acting books that every actor should have on their shelf.

William Esper and Damon DiMarco, “The Actor’s Art and Craft”

This is probably the best book there is on acting at the time. In this book, Esper dives into the Meisner Technique, introduced by Sanford Meisner. The book in itself is very detailed, offering concrete, clear, step-by-step instruction into how to really become a great actor.

Damon DiMarco, a contributing writer to this book, also does his best to describe all acting techniques presented by Esper. These exercises and techniques have been tested during 1st year period – and the results were spectacular. Once you start reading this book, the chances are that you won’t want to put it down – unless you want to try out those techniques yourself.

Constantin Stanislavski, “An Actor Prepares”

This is considered an “oldie, but goldie” by many actors – beginners or not. This book follows the experience of an acting group as they are being taught acting methods by their teacher. One can say it’s fiction – but in truth, it’s actually an in-depth presentation of the acting theory.

Upon reading the book, you will notice that it contains a variety of things – from examples to techniques and exercises that are meant to tickle your creative bone. Many great actors of this world have been directly influenced by the teachings brought by An Actor Prepares.

Stella Adler, “The Art of Acting”

Considering that Stella Adler is one of the very few actresses to work with Stanislavski himself, this is one book that you definitely need to own as an actor. The book was actually compiled and edited by Howard Kissel, who worked closely with Adler in order to bring you every piece of information. It’s a book on acting theory – but with a lot of practical examples included.

This book literally teaches you how to be an actor. It compiles several transcriptions, tapes, notes, and other sources – and in the end, reconstructing an acting course which was sectioned into 22 lessons. If you’re just learning how to act, this book will provide the main info.

S. Loraine Hull, “Strasberg’s Method”

If you are looking for one of the best acting books that dive straight into methods of acting out your character, then you might want to give Strasberg’s Method a shot. This book lays out everything that Lee Strasberg has to teach, and in a manner that can be understood by anyone. The exercises are very easy to understand and would be a great benefit for those who did not get to learn under the man himself.

This book is considered by many to be the Bible of Method Acting since everything you might want to know is described in detail within the lines. Once you read this book, it’s less likely you’ll need any other book on the subject.

Michael Chekhov, “To the Actor”

Michael Chekhov is another Russian writer, as well as an actor, that has done a lot of homework on the subject. In his book, To the Actor, he talks about the emotions of an actor, as well as his ability to be aware in space – regardless if it’s real or acted.

He also talks about the most efficient methods to develop your character, while also bringing forth some exercises to help you learn. This book is considered to be a building block for anyone wishing to achieve greatness as a writer.

Michael Shurtleff, “Audition”

Before you start acting out a role for a play or a movie, you first need to audition for it. This book tackles the art of audition – but seen from the perspective of a casting director.

The book itself is written in a simple manner and was made to be informative. It features a 12-step guide that has corresponding questions meant to help actors get ready for auditions – as well as callbacks.

Every acting technique presented here is special – some of the favorites including “finding humor and love,” “playing opposites,” and “the moment before.”

Larry Moss, “The Intent to Live

If you saw this book randomly on a shelf, you probably wouldn’t realize that it is actually one of the best books on filmmaking. However, as Moss explains, this book is called this way because they don’t look like they are acting; they simply look like they are living.

He may be a fairly young teacher, but Moss instructed a fair number of students – some of them being great names such as Leonardo DiCaprio, Hillary Swank, and Justin Timberlake. He is the Meisner and Stanislavski of modern times – and every modern actor should have this book on their shelf.

In this book, Larry Moss stresses on a variety of things. The most recurring ones are script work and preparation – which is why his writing offers insight into how to tackle a difficult role or how to develop your characters.

Final Thoughts

There are many actors reading books on acting out in the world – as they should. No matter how good you may be, you should always strive for better. Even if you are a prodigy, acting can only be learned through education – and if you strive to achieve greatness, literature should always be the first place to start.

Hopefully, our suggestions for books about acting will be of good use to you. Read them all – and then try out the techniques on the scene.


hollywood

Mistakes are an imminent part of life – and the same applies to the acting realm. Even the most experienced actors are likely to make mistakes. Still, the key to continually improving yourself is learning from your mistakes. Being nervous definitely doesn’t help when it comes to auditioning for a part – but it’s entirely up to you to learn to control your emotions and to do your best.

That being said, what are some of the main things you should avoid doing in the audition room?

Be Scared

It goes without saying that your attitude and the vibe you convey are some of the most quintessential things when it comes to auditioning. And while there are many helpful tips out there, an important guideline is embracing a confident approach. You don’t need to have the perfect environment in order to do your best.

In plain English, forget that you’re working and allow the character you’re playing to come to life. In order to accomplish this, you should be confident, and act with mind and heart, so that the role doesn’t seem like something outside of you, but something that is part of you. Essentially, it is difficult, if not impossible to allow the work to flow if you’re constantly thinking that the casting director might not like you, or anything of the sort.

That being said, you should focus on connecting and living in the moment, allowing the experience to flow naturally.

Being Inflexible

While most directors appreciate actors that have personal opinions, this doesn’t mean that you shouldn’t be collaborative and flexible. As a rule of thumb, you should focus on working with the director. Still, don’t go in the opposite direction – you shouldn’t be a pushover either. Be open to any suggestions or recommendations the director might have for the part. Also, be prepared to audition in more than one way.

Being Unprepared

Auditions can be really tough, especially when you’re not prepared. Contrary to popular belief, though, being unprepared for an audition doesn’t necessarily entail only the memorizing of the script. When you’re rehearsing the audition material, you should a lot more than recite some words – you should get into character. So, make sure you rehearse this at home, as well. Spontaneity is definitely great, but, during auditions, one tends to be overstressed and nervous, and it might not necessarily work to your advantage.

Being Ignorant

As we’ve already noted, preparing for an audition implies a lot more than knowing the script by heart, or by knowing how to interpret the character. You should also take the time to do some research. An example would be: if you want to audition for a play by August Wilson, you should read some of his work, to familiarize yourself with the style. Conversely, your limited knowledge of black literature might impair your capability of interpreting the role like a pro.

Essentially, the same principle applies to Shakespeare. You should be knowledgeable regarding the correct word pronunciations, as well as the meaning of rarely utilized words.

Chit-Chatting

Being too friendly during an audition isn’t necessarily recommendable either. Under no circumstances should you ask the director any personal questions. You should also avoid being overly friendly or talking about the weather or any other chit-chatting topics. Also, sharing too much personal information is contraindicated as well.

To conclude, it’s quintessential to learn from previous audition mistakes. It’s just as important to avoid making new ones. Even so, you shouldn’t despair: mistakes, setbacks – however, you want to call them, are part of the learning process. With the right attitude, you’ll keep improving so that you become a better actor.


audition

Being in the acting industry is a huge challenge. While it is true that it can be really rewarding and alluring, the statistics are quite discouraging. It appears that roughly 92 percent of the people pursuing a career in acting don’t get a chance, whereas the remaining 8 percent have regular jobs. However, challenges can be surpassed with the right skills, preparation, and determination – which brings us to today’s topic, namely how to maximize the likelihood of getting a winning audition?

Analyze the Audition Notice

When you arrive at an audition, you should be more than ready to perform. You should be able to masterfully present the requested material. In this direction, you should carefully examine the audition notice. What is expected of you? Should you have a monologue prepared? Essentially, the material you present should match the specifications of the audition.

Rehearse Beforehand

As we’ve already pointed, most auditions entail the preparation of a material. The ideal scenario is getting the script before the audition. Still, it might be handed to you at the audition venue. If that happens, you should aim at memorizing at least some of the lines before facing the panel.

On the flipside, though, if you do get the script beforehand, this would give you plenty of time for rehearsing. For example, you might consider rehearsing in front of the mirror, to get the confidence you need to present the role as you should. Essentially, you are supposed to do a lot more than simply read some lines. You are expected to act on them like a pro – this is the key to ensuring you get a successful audition.

The director should be able to see a significant difference between you and the character you’re representing. The character should come to life as you present the part.

Be Flexible

Flexibility is an important trait, especially for actors. That is to say, you should always be flexible when it comes to the audition material. For instance, you might be asked to interpret the role differently, or in various ways; you might have to play a distinct personality.

While you might do an excellent job of performing a long monologue with real tears in your eyes, you should be ready to do the exact same monologue in a whimsical, calm voice, as well. Flexibility is a highly regarded quality in the realm of acting, so make sure you own it.

Embrace a Professional Approach

While it is true that, for some actors, unemployment is a lifestyle, having a professional approach can significantly increase your chances of succeeding. For example, you should always try to arrive at least fifteen minutes before the start of the audition. At the same time, you should remain courteous and polite without being overly talkative.

On a different note, there are casting directors that expect resumes and headshots. Hence, you might consider bringing them with you to your auditions. Also, the headshot should look like you; so steer clear of cheesy poses.

As a rule of thumb, though, you should convey every audition for a job interview. Remain modest, yet confident, and avoid any speeches that aim at persuading the director that you are the best person for the part.

To conclude, every audition comes with its share of difficulties you ought to surpass. Regardless of the experience, you gain as time passes by, the process doesn’t get any easier. And while there are some unparalleled rewards that come with the territory, this doesn’t eliminate the existence of challenges. We hope that you’ve found our advice useful!


hollywood

Hollywood – there’s no other place like it. It is diverse, fun, unconventional and unexpected. And the best part about it is that there are so many things to do there. Most importantly, though, Hollywood is renowned as the home of the film and entertainment industry. On that note, what are the main places you should go to? We hope that our list of recommendations will inspire you!

Walk of Fame

To start with, you should definitely go to the famous Hollywood Walk of Fame. Running along Vine Street and Hollywood Boulevard, this street comprises the most famous names, which are represented by the stars on the sidewalk. You’ll find the names of musicians, actors, directors and other important personalities from domains such as recording, radio, TV, motion pictures, as well as live and theatre performance.

This tradition goes back to 1960. At that time, it led to a lot of controversies regarding who should or should not be included. Hence, in order to determine that, there is a nomination process and the nominees are officially announced each June.

The Hollywood Sign

It goes without saying that a visit to Hollywood would be incomplete without seeing the one and only Hollywood Sign. Initially, the sign was created in 1923. Supposedly, it should have remained up for roughly a year and a half. Still, years afterward, the sign is still there, being a representative of this city. As a matter of fact, there are various interesting facts about the sign; for example, it was meant as a real-estate advertisement. Who knew that it would become an emblem of the city?

In order to reach this viewpoint, you should drive there – the good thing is that there is plentiful parking space. However, if you want to get a closer look, you might consider trekking on Mt. Lee Dr., to experience a whole, unique view of the cityscape.

Universal Studios Hollywood

Another great spot that is worthy of your attention is, without fear of contradiction, the Universal Studios Hollywood. It is separated into specific areas – namely a working studio, a theme park, the City Walk, and an area comprising of cafes, restaurants, and shops. It would be safe to say that the park provides some of the most alluring theme park rides in the United States. While it’s true that there are the classic rides as well, new, innovative rides are continually developed, being inspired by popular TV shows or movies.

What is more, you might consider taking a tour behind the camera, and see what the filming of a Hollywood film entails. A tour allows you to catch a glimpse of the making of a film. You can see some of the most renowned former movie sets – some classics are the Bates Motel, the War of the Worlds or Wisteria Lane.

Sunset Strip

Sunset Strip is situated in West Hollywood, belonging to the renowned Sunset Boulevard. This is an eclectic, charming area filled with restaurants, shops, and various entertainment venues, accompanied by eye-catching billboards.

At nighttime, the street comes even more to life, being filled with neon colors and never-ending crowds of people. While the street isn’t as high-end as it would be in the past, it is still pretty unique, being a significant part of the city and its charm. This is why a visit to the Sunset Strip is a must. This is also the place to get across famous people.

These are some of our top recommendations for visiting Hollywood. Of course, the city has so much more to offer. It’s entirely up to you to discover it at your own pace and taste its specific charisma!


character

The main distinction between mediocre and compelling acting lies in character building. In other words, your priority as an actor is to bring the character to life. In order to accomplish this, there are plentiful acting techniques that might come in helpful. The audience must never question your interpretation of the character. This is real, genuine acting in its rawest form.

So, how do you accomplish this? Do consider the following tips.

Do Your Research

The actual process of building a character starts before the rehearsals do. That is to say, you should have comprehensive knowledge regarding the play or movie, and to pinpoint the personality of the character. In this way, when the rehearsals do start, you will be making the correct decisions concerning your character. It is of utmost importance to comprise a backstory for your character.

If you’ve been chosen to play a part – it means that you are the right person for it. So, make sure you derive your confidence from this and remain focused on the part you’re playing. As long as you do that, you will come off as believable to your audience. Lack of confidence is, in fact, the primary signs of bad acting, so make sure you work on eliminating your doubts.

See the Character from a Deeper Angle

The way in which you perceive the character physically is just as critical when you’re trying to build a character. And this is much more important if your speaking part is rather limited. On that note, you should concentrate on both the physicality of your character, as well as a certain degree of self-awareness. Still, you shouldn’t allow your self-awareness to overrule the life and essence of the character; this is one of the main rules of acting.

Furthermore, you should incorporate all the details that make up a character, such as the gestures one uses, the way in which one walks, talks stands, so on and so forth. It’s as simple as this: the audience should notice that everything about the character comes as a whole. These are, in fact, the details that make the world of a difference when it comes to transmitting feelings. Make sure you consider this next time you’re performing.

Take Your Time

In order to build a character, you should do so much more than simply regurgitating a series of memorized lines. You should take the time to take in the environment, as well as the other actors present in the scene. At the same time, you should build your scenes depending on the feedback of the actors you’re playing with, as well. Make sure you look at the lines and anticipate your character’s reactions.

Concentrate

The key to successfully building up a character stays in your capability of staying focused on what you have to do. Not only that you should focus on your character and the reactions you should embrace, but you should be in tune with the actors you’re playing with, their lines, personalities, so on and so forth. In this way, you’ll be able to react naturally to the actions that are taking place around you. In time, it’ll become easier to stay focused during rehearsals.

All in all, you’ll realize that, with time and perseverance, you can accomplish anything. As you become more experience in the realm of acting, the entire process will come more naturally to you, meaning that you will feel more comfortable and at ease in someone else’s skin. Don’t get discouraged, and remember our tips for creating a convincing character!